Cardiac Measurement Terms, Equations, and Reference Values

VO2/maximal VO2Cardiac output × A-V O2 differential35–40 mL/kg/min (men); 27–30 mL/kg/min (women)
Cardiac outputHeart rate × stroke volume4.0–8.0 mL/min
Stroke volumeEnd-diastolic volume − end-systolic volume60–100 mL
A-V O2 differentialOxygen content of pulmonary blood − oxygen content in mixed venous blood4.5 mL/100 mL/min
MVO2/rate–pressure productCoronary blood flow × A-V O2 differential/heart rate × systolic blood pressure30–35 mL/min
MPHR220 − ageNot applicable